The diagnosis is made by tests involving

  • Blood tests – Serum Creatinine, Blood Urea
  • Urine R/M and Microalbumin
  • Ultra-sound scan of the kidneys.

Urine examination reveals loss of protein in urine with or without RBC, WBC, etc.
Blood investigation reveals increased urea, serum creatinine, and electrolytes and other divalent ion imbalances.
Ultrasound of the abdomen may show small shrunken kidneys. It is important to remember that in many CKD patients’ kidney size remains normal.
A normal ultrasound for kidneys does not rule out CKD as is the case in most diabetics who have advanced kidney disease.